Thursday, June 30, 2011

Dinos in Pop Culture Thursday

Dinos in Pop Culture, where we highlight each week some of the more obscure instances of dinosaurs used in the pop culture realm to sell anything from slippers to wedding cakes.


This week we have a toothbrush holder in the shape of a dino egg with a Triceratops skull on top of it. I think it's kind of cute.

Tuesday, June 28, 2011

Ichnology Meeting and Field Work

For those who do not know, "Ichnology" means the study of trace fossils and that is what I am currently doing for my PhD Dissertation. In that vein I am going to Spain for the International Ichnofabric Workshop to give a presentation on what is essentially the start of my PhD prep. I am currently working on building up a trace fossil database for research purposes. After that I am going to be in the field at Zumaia, Spain to study a specific group of trace fossils called "graphoglyptids", which I will explain what are at some later time. Following that I am going to Krakow, Poland to take pictures in the geology museum of more graphoglyptids.

Following that I am coming back. So, since my schedule looks to be pretty full for the next couple of weeks I am going to have the blog be running on autopilot, posting GeoJeopardy! as well as some other posts automatically. I may have time for a new post here or there but I really don't know.  So I wanted to leave you with my abstract for the conference.

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Internet databases in ichnology: The benefits and need for a dynamic Universal Ichnological Database



Lehane, J.R. and Ekdale, A.A.

Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of Utah, 115 South 1460 East,

Room 383 FASB, Salt Lake City, UT 84112-0102, U.S.A.




Introduction

     Scientific research has been steadily progressing into the digital realm to the point that most, if not all, journals offer a digital means of obtaining their articles, and some journals now are exclusively digital, including Palaeontologia Electronica and PLoS ONE. This has created a tremendous advantage to researching scientists, because what used to take days or even weeks to obtain articles on some obscure subject can now take minutes with a careful search and appropriate access. Research tools like GeoRef, the American Geological Institute’s geoscience database, and Google Scholar make finding information extremely timely and most of the time relevant.

     In the case of paleontology, numerous databases have made attempts at synthesizing the information into one all-encompassing portal. These databases include FossilPlot (Tapanila, 2007), The Paleontology Portal (http://www.paleoportal.org/) and The Paleobiology Database (http://paleodb.org) (PBD). However, these resources currently have been of little use to ichnologists. There are also more specific databases that deal with ichnology in particular. These most commonly are collection-specific databases, which may or may not be widely, or personal online databases.

     It is to the benefit of current ichnologists that a Universal Ichnological Database (UID) be set up with all of the available ichnological information readily available to facilitate future research. Paleontology has often taken advantage of biostratigraphic and paleobiogeographic data to analyze data. With the advent of a UID, this could then be more readily applied to ichnology. The database could be used to help develop ichnological range charts and ichnobiogeographic maps for applications in ichnostratigraphy.



Literature Search Engines

     There are several literature search engines on the internet that may be used in ichnological research. The problem with these is that you still need to wade through the piles of information to find what you want. For example, if we search for the trace fossil Zoophycos within GeoRef and Google Scholar (as of March 2011), we get 467 published works returned in GeoRef, including abstracts and conference materials. This result can be narrowed down by limiting the search to just Zoophycos located within the title (94 results) or a number of other variables. While GeoRef confines its searches to titles, abstracts, and keywords, Google Scholar is a little more diverse, usually being able to search the entire document. A search of Zoophycos in Google Scholar returns about 2,480 results. Google Scholar though only has the option to limit the search to the entire article (if available) or the title. A title-only search of Zoophycos returns 137 results.



Paleontology Databases

Of all the available paleontology databases online, there are three primary ones which seem to be the most diverse and dynamic. The first one, FossilPlot, is an Excel-based spreadsheet of the Sepkoski Compendium, but it does not include trace fossils. So for a direct trace fossil analysis, this database is not useful. However, it does have tremendous value in listing the concurrent ranges of marine taxa body fossils that may be trace makers. The concurrent range charts which can be produced are useful in ichnology if the trace fossil maker is known, or at least assumed.

     The next paleontology database, The Paleontology Portal, is an educational resource that lists fossils by period. For example, it is possible to click on “Jurassic” and see what animals lived during that time period. The Paleontology Portal does contain some trace fossils, but they are extremely limited in their extent and contain almost no information other than a picture, the ichnogenus, and a general locality of the specimen. The available trace fossils on the site are divided roughly equally between vertebrate and invertebrate traces (46% to 54%). This is in contrast to what is actually seen in the fossil record, which is dominated by invertebrate traces. When working through The Paleontology Portal, there are two main ways to find information. The most straightforward way is to click on the “Trace Fossils” link, and then click on the time period, which will then give you an image list available for trace fossils from that time period. Unfortunately, there are only 39 individual trace fossils listed (as of March 2011) with 32 unique trace fossils. For example, when you click on the Devonian, you will get one result, which is Zoophycos. The information that is associated with that trace fossil also is limited. When you click on the link for the trace fossil, you get a larger image, the same one that was previously shown, as well as the state in which the trace fossil was found, but that is it. Another way is to search for trace fossils is through the search function. This basically just pulls up all available occurrences of that trace fossil in the database. If you type in “Zoophycos”, you will get back one result, the same one from the Devonian. If you type in another common trace fossil, “Thalassinoides”, you get no results at all, since that common ichnogenus is not in the database. So for use in ichnological research, The Paleontology Portal does not currently serve well.

     The third primary paleontology database is The Paleobiology Database (PBD). This is the paleontology database that has the most potential in ichnology. As of March 2011, it currently had over 180,000 species listed. However, the number of trace fossils in the database is not available, since there was no specific search function for trace fossils. If we are to search for Zoophycos again, it returns a list of 132 separate occurrences of Zoophycos, most of which are located in the Devonian of New York (94). When you click on the “Show More Details” tab, you learn that Zoophycos is a genus, and that is it. Since the database is primarily based on literature identifications, most of the links of the fossils point back to the primary sources. The database also is very helpful in identifying the locations of the fossils on a paleogeographic map, but it is not able to search for specific characteristics. So although this database has potential as a starting off point, it is not much better than doing more personalized research using Google Scholar or GeoRef.



Ichnology Databases

     There also are more ichnologically specific databases where one can search for data. One group of these are the collection-specific databases, including one used at the University of Utah and also one being developed for the Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle, Paris (Goldstein et al., 2010). Collection-specific databases can provide important information, since they often include many fossils that have not been reported in formal publications. Thus, such collection-specific tabulations include information that ordinarily would not make it to the online databases, since those are built primarily upon published information (either published in a journal or through an online forum). What can be gleaned from these databases are range and locality information. Usually there are no images associated with the databases, so if you are not in the actual presence of the trace fossils you have to rely solely on the database information. The main problem with this approach is that if you are not in the vicinity of the fossils, you need to rely on someone else’s knowledge of the trace fossil for identification, and you probably do not know that name of the identifier, since it is not usually listed.

     There is also the Trace Fossil Image Database , which is a website run by Anthony J. Martin at Emory University, who has catalogued the images of about 61 different trace fossils (as of March 2011) (http://www.envs.emory.edu/faculty/MARTIN/ichnology/images.htm). Unlike most of the other databases, this one includes a descriptive analysis of the trace fossil as well as an image with the age, formation, location, and collector information of each of the images. Although very useful, the main problem with this website is that there is no easy way to search through the database or update the information. You need to know what you are looking for to help find the information.



Developing a Universal Ichnological Database

At this time, there is no real one-stop-shopping location for all your ichnological database inquiries. There is no one place where you can find the range data as well as a photo and a description of each trace all in an easily searchable database. This means that a comprehensive, easily accessible database of ichnological information must be built. The best solution for accomplishing this objective may be a dataset that already has the infrastructure to handle the input and searching for information. The database should be dynamic and not reliant on any single contributor. The problem with most websites and institutional collection-specific databases is that they are run by individuals who are not only fallible but temporary. A database should transcend the temporary. Among the existing internet databases, FossilPlot is useful but not as widely used, is maintained by one individual, and does not contain any trace fossils. The Paleontology Portal seems to be an elementary introduction website that is not very useful in scientific research. The Trace Fossil Image Database and the institutional collection-specific databases may be used as building blocks for a Universal Ichnological Database (UID), but at this point they are not set up for easy input of information needed to build and maintain a universal database. The Paleobiology Database (PBD) has one of the largest online communities, who are daily adding new species or information to old species, so it holds promise as a possible vehicle to build a comprehensive internet-accessible UID. 

Since the PBD fits all of the criteria for a good starting point, it has been chosen as the repository for the UID. To start off, some information already has been included into the database. Roy Plotnick, the only current ichnological contributor to the PBD, has already entered most of the genus names from the Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology, Volume W (Häntzschel, 1975). The only thing that was needed was to go back and supplement that information. The important information that should be included is the First Appearance Datum (FAD), the Last Appearance Datum (LAD), the diagnostic information, a photographic representation, and any identified species. The secondary information, which would sometimes be included if available, would be the possible trace maker, the inferred behavior, the paleoenvironment, and the ichnofacies. The PBD already has most of these columns setup prior to any input of information.

When the information of most available trace fossils is entered into the database, it then will be available for a variety of ichnological analyses. These analyses may include creating range charts to identify the age of rocks, studying behavioral evolution, producing a searchable diagnosis database for people to identify unknown trace fossils, and creating paleobiostratigraphic maps, to name just a few.



Acknowledgements

JRL thanks ExxonMobil for the ExxonMobil Science Grants for Students, which paid for the work on this project.



Literature Cited


Tapanila, L. 2007. FossilPlot, an Excel-based computer application for teaching stratigraphic paleontology using the Sepkoski Compendium of fossil marine genera. Journal of Geoscience Education, 55, 133-137.

Monday, June 27, 2011

Saturday, June 25, 2011

GeoJeopardy! Fridays #52

Time for GeoJeopardy! Fridays, because it's still Friday somewhere, right?.

- Prehistoric Times -

Scientists believe that  Eohippus, about the size of a small dog, was the earliest ancestor of this animal

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Scientists have placed 5 species of prehumans into the genus Australopithecus, which means "southern" this

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This prehistoric people that followed Neanderthal man produced the first examples of human artwork

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The 2 dinosaurian orders are saurischia, which means "lizard hips", & ornithischia, which means this

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This coal-forming period of geologic time is split into Mississippian & Pennsylvanian periods

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All the answers as well as any other previous GeoJeopardy! questions can be found over at my website by clicking the link.  

And if you enjoy this post as well as others, please consider subscribing to my blog via Google Reader or some other RSS feed so that way I better know my readership. Thank you.

Questions, images, and videos courtesy of j-archive.com

Thursday, June 23, 2011

Dinos in Pop Culture Thursday

Dinos in Pop Culture, where we highlight each week some of the more obscure instances of dinosaurs used in the pop culture realm to sell anything from slippers to wedding cakes.


Here we have some T Rex slippers from the Discovery Store. I bought these for my office use in school and they looked pretty cool online but I must admit they are pretty ugly, although still cool.

Wednesday, June 22, 2011

Geological State Symbols Across the US - #1 Alabama

Our first state alphabetically is Alabama. Here are the stats:

                                                                    Year Established
State Rock: Marble                                         1969
State Mineral: Hematite                                 1967
State Gemstone: Star Blue Quartz                  1990
State Fossil: Basilosaurus cetoides                 1984

State Rock: Marble
Marble is a metamorphic rock that forms from limestone. It is mainly composed of calcite or dolomite but will often have other minerals as well (i.e. quartz, talc, forsterite, tremolite, etc.). It is often found to be primarily white with swirls of darker colors (black or brown) but can be almost any color of the rainbow depending on the impurities. The primary source of marble in Alabama is in Talladega County and it is referred to as the Sylacauga marble. This marble has been quarried and used in art and building stones throughout Alabama and the US.

State Mineral: Hematite
File:Vulcan statue Birmingham AL 2008 snow.jpgHematite is a mineral often referred to as rust. It is produced from the oxidation of iron and forms iron oxide in the form of Fe2O3. It is also one of the most common sources of iron ore and is often referred to as red iron ore. The hematite in Alabama was primarily mined from the Red Mountain Formation until 1975, where it became cheaper to import it. But at one time it was the states most developed non-fuel mineral industry, helping to build up Birmingham as an industrial center. In the 135 years hematite was mined, they produced ~375 million tons of ore. Birmingham is also known for the largest cast-iron structure ever made, the stature of Vulcan (picture right), produced entirely with Birmingham iron ore.


State Gemstone: Star Blue Quartz
star blue quartzQuartz is one of the most common minerals on Earth, primarily due to its simple structure and chemical formula, SiO2. Not to mention it is harder than most other common minerals. Quartz can come in almost any color, which is caused by impurities in the crystals, and has a variety of names including amethyst (purple quartz), smokey quartz (grey), etc. The special thing about Alabama's "Star blue quartz" is that it often contains little bits of amphibole (another type of mineral) and displays asterism (a star pattern in the light) when polished.

Although the state website claims that star blue quartz is common, it does not appear to be so. There are very few pictures of this specific variety of quartz, although blue quartz by itself is rather abundant.

State Fossil: Basilosaurus cetoides
Basilosaurus cetoides was a prehistoric whale that lived during the Cenozoic era, about 35 million Basilosaurus is a member of the whale family first discovered in Alabama in 1834. It was originally thought to be a swimming reptile but was later discovered that it was indeed a whale from the Eocene period. This whale also had hindlimbs that were mostly nonfunctional (it is theorized they could have been used during sex). The hindlimbs are likely a vestigial "organ" from the evolution of land animals to modern whales. Basilosaurus is most abundant in Alabama and has been found in Clarke, Choctaw, and Washington counties.




References
http://www.archives.state.al.us/emblems/emblems.html
http://www.sylacauga.net/library/sections/Sylacauga%20Marble%20Fiestival/Marble%20Fiestival%202010.htm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vulcan_statue
http://geology.about.com/od/regional_geology/ig/stategems/stateblueqtz.htm
http://www.encyclopediaofalabama.org/face/Multimedia.jsp?id=m-3931
http://wapedia.mobi/en/Basilosaurus

Tuesday, June 21, 2011

News of the Day - Creationists at GSA?

Here is an article from Earth Magazine where the writer went on a field trip and later listened to a talk from a well known Creationist as a GSA meeting. What? A Creationist at a GSA meeting? What the hell?

But I think he makes a valid point and I agree that, should the science warrent it, they should be allowed to say what they think, let the science stand on its own, and let other people judge. It is when the science is crap and they ignore facts that I have a problem.

Creationism creeps into mainstream geology

Saturday, June 18, 2011

Amateur Paleo Blog

Recently, while at the annual UFOP meeting I met some physicists who like to travel around to amatuer paleo sites, do digs, and visit museums. They also have their own blog, The Paleo-Tourist about their travels and paleo adventures. I recommend it as a good way for people wanting to get into paleontology but not sure how. It shows how a couple of amateurs do it. It also doesn't hurt that they referenced me in a post either.

Friday, June 17, 2011

GeoJeopardy! Fridays #51

Time for GeoJeopardy! Fridays, because it is time to take a brake.

- Rocks & Stuff -

A rock called pridotite produces this hardest gem

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This form of molten rock deep within the earth can reach a temperature of over 2100 degrees

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This agreeable-sounding metamorphic rock has alternating bands of dark- & light-colored minerals

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Most rocks are composed primarily of oxygen & this element

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Soapstone, used as an electrical insulator, is a greenish-gray variety of this soft mineral

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All the answers as well as any other previous GeoJeopardy! questions can be found over at my website by clicking the link.  

And if you enjoy this post as well as others, please consider subscribing to my blog via Google Reader or some other RSS feed so that way I better know my readership. Thank you.

Questions, images, and videos courtesy of j-archive.com

Thursday, June 16, 2011

Dinos in Pop Culture Thursdays

Well I have been keeping this up for several Thursday's now, so we will make it a weekly theme.
This week we have a disemboweled dinosaur filled with balls (a ball pit) and a baby.

Tuesday, June 14, 2011

State Symbols Across the US - Introduction

It is fairly common knowledge that the individual states in the US like to acknowledge specific items of historic or cultural significance in that state by declaring them the "State ...." whatever (flag, song, rock, etc.). I think some of them have interesting histories and I figured I would catalogue all of them in alphabetical order, starting with Alabama and working my way to Wyoming. I can't promise you one a week but I can try for at least one a month. The lists will most likely include categories like State Rock, State Mineral, State Gemstone, and State Fossil, along with anything else that may be of importance. I think this will be fun.

Friday, June 10, 2011

GeoJeopardy! Fridays #50!!

Time for GeoJeopardy! Fridays, because it's a sick day.

- What Planet Are You From? -

It has seasonal weather patterns & iron-rich minerals in the soil, giving it a distinct red color

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Greater in mass than all the other planets combined, it's surrounded by dozens of moons

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Its mean distance from the Sun is only about 36 million miles

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It's the smallest & densest of the outer gas giants & has an appropriate name, as it has a watery interior

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Bands of debris & ice surround it, as do its satellites, including Titan

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All the answers as well as any other previous GeoJeopardy! questions can be found over at my website by clicking the link.  

And if you enjoy this post as well as others, please consider subscribing to my blog via Google Reader or some other RSS feed so that way I better know my readership. Thank you.

Questions, images, and videos courtesy of j-archive.com

Thursday, June 09, 2011

Tuesday, June 07, 2011

Survival of the Fittest - My PhD Exam Experience

There was several things that were said to me about the PhD Quaification Exam before, during, and after I took it. These mostly pertain to geology PhD's but may relate to other disciplines. I have heard other stories from other disciplines and other departments though and know that geology is relatively consistent with this.

1. Nobody ever feels like they are doing well.
2. It is meant to push you until you break.
3. They want to see how much you know, not what you don't know.
4. Hahahaha, good luck.
5. "We'll see if you know about this."

Monday, June 06, 2011

Darwin Awards - Geology Strikes Back 8




Algae covered rocks, a swift moving current, a giant waterfall, and a sign that states "If you go in the water, you will die" do not deter this hiker from cooling his feet off in the river. Needless to say, the river won.

Article courtesy of John Fullmer

All of the other Darwin Awards - Geology Strikes Back can found at my website by clicking the link.

Saturday, June 04, 2011

AW - Call for Posts

A new call for posts is up at Georneys for the next Accretionary Wedge. She is looking for:

What's your favorite geology word?

You can post just the word if you want. You can also add anything you want-- a definition, some pictures related to the word, a story about the word, a poem, a drawing. Anything at all!

I must warn you, though: if you post about a good word, I may use the word in a future Geology Word of the Week post!
 So head on over there and participate!

Friday, June 03, 2011

GeoJeopardy! Fridays #49

Time for GeoJeopardy! Fridays, because it's a nice day out.

- Geology -

A placer is a deposit of sand containing metals such as this, which brought an influx to Placer County, California

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A cauldron subsidence is when a mass of solid rock sinks into a pool of this subterranean molten rock

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In geology, BYO isn't on a faculty party invitation; it stands for this, in Canada's Acasta Gneiss, about 4 BYO

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In the mountain type of this, rock projects above the frozen stuff

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William Smith's 1815 map "of New England and Wales" showed these rock layers in different colors

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All the answers as well as any other previous GeoJeopardy! questions can be found over at my website by clicking the link.  

And if you enjoy this post as well as others, please consider subscribing to my blog via Google Reader or some other RSS feed so that way I better know my readership. Thank you.

Questions, images, and videos courtesy of j-archive.com

Thursday, June 02, 2011

Dinos in Pop Culture

And they made the evolution into dog toys. I did not buy this one though since it was $16.

Wednesday, June 01, 2011

Darwin Awards - Geology Strikes Back 7



Hurricanes strike back this time as 20 people defy evacuation warnings to have a "Hurricane Party" only to be carried off by winds and ocean waves.

Article courtesy of Seong Jun Lee
All other Darwin Awards - Geology Strikes back can be found at my website.