You can find any of the other states geological symbols on my website here: Dinojim.com (being updated as I go along this year).
State Rock: Marble 1969
State Mineral: Hematite 1967
State Gemstone: Star Blue Quartz 1990
State Fossil: Basilosaurus cetoides 1984
State Rock: Marble
|Book covering the history of |
the Sylacauga marble. (sylacauga.net)
|Sculpting the Sylacauga Marble during|
the Magic of Marble Festival in 2010. (sylacauga.net)
State Mineral: Hematite
|Images of red and silver hematite |
|Cast iron statue of Vulcan from |
Birmingham, AL (wikipedia.com).
The hematite in Alabama was primarily mined from the Red Mountain Formation until 1975, where it became cheaper to import it. At one time it was Alabama's most developed, non-fuel, mineral industry, helping to build up Birmingham as an industrial center. In the 135 years hematite was mined, ~375 million tons of ore was excavated. The Red Mountain Formation is primarily a Silurian interbedded shale-sandstone with some siltstone and limestone deposits intermixed. The hematite is largely from cross-bedded sandstone members of the Red Mountain Formation, which were deposited as shoreface (essentially beach) deposits. The production of hematite within the sandstone was precipitated during periods of sediment starvation and reworking during a regression (sea-level drop). Birmingham is also known for the largest cast-iron structure ever made, the statue of Vulcan (picture right), produced entirely with the Birmingham iron ore.
State Gemstone: Star Blue Quartz
|Star blue quartz (Alabama.gov).|
Unlike the other varieties of quartz (such as citrine or amethyst), pure blue quartz has not yet been found in nature. Instead, the quartz crystals appear blue because of the inclusions of other minerals or properties of the mineral itself that make the light reflect through the mineral and makes it appear blue. The reason that Star Blue Quartz is blue is that it contains little bits of amphibole (another type of mineral) and displays asterism (a star pattern in the light) when polished. The problem with this variety of quartz though is that there is little to no information on where to find it or why it was even listed as the state gemstone. The best that I can find is the constantly rehashed phrase from when it was promoted to the state: "(star blue quartz) is one of the most beautiful gemstones on earth, and the cheapest because there are so many." It appears that this very common mineral is rare to non-existent in Alabama. There have been reports of it along the Flint River, but most of those occurrences are generally in neighboring Georgia.
State Fossil: Basilosaurus cetoides
|Basilosaurus skeleton from the National Museum of Natural History (Wikimedia.org).|
|Phylogenetic relationships of early cetaceans (from Houssaye et al., 2015)|
The group Basilosauridae contained a few other species that had body proportions similar to modern day dolphins but Basilosaurus had an "exceptionally long body and tail" resulting in the animal having a more snake-like appearance. The body length ranged from 49 to 59 ft and is one of the largest known animals during the Paleocene-Eocene time period. Basilosaurus is most abundant in Alabama and has been found in Clarke, Choctaw, and Washington counties.
Chowns, Tim & Rindsberg, Andrew. (2015). Stratigraphy and depositional environments in the Silurian Red Mountain Formation of the southern Appalachian basin. 10.1130/2015.0039(04).
Houssaye A, Tafforeau P, de Muizon C, Gingerich PD. Transition of Eocene whales from land to sea: evidence from bone microstructure. PLoS One. 2015;10(2):e0118409. Published 2015 Feb 25. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0118409